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Scotland Limited Partnership Formation (SLP)

 

A Scottish Limited Partnership (SLP) is a unique vehicle that is not very well known. Although it has been around for over a century, the SLP has been used in recent times for modern business purposes such as private equity and property investment fund structures. This type of 'company' has many advantages that make it very attractive to fund managers, promoters and investors, both in Scotland and elsewhere in the world. Well used as a holding company for private assets especially when the owner does not want to be tarnished by the reputations that some tax havens undoubtedly have, but does want the tax advantages allowed by a SLP.

 

A new introduction in April 2017 has been the ability to register a Private Unit Trust Limited Partnership, or a Public Unit Trust Limited Partnership. These will both prove to be popular with investors due to the low overhead costs and favourable untaxed status in the hands of the Partnership. They will also be welcomed by people from countries where the Family Trust structure is not fully understood - bringing succession planning into play together with sensible tax treatment.

 

We can organize all the legal requirements for registration with the Scottish Companies office, including provision of the requirement for you to have a registered office in Scotland. Additionally, we can now also provide VAT registration (if required) for Scottish Limited Partnerships - ask by email for our private client charges.

 

Before ordering one of these we recommend that you discuss the circumstances with us to be certain that this arrangement is private and you are properly protected. To deal with the subject of Taxation, provided that you do no business in Scotland, that you are not resident there and do not have British / Scottish nationality, then your Scottish LP will pay no tax. There is no audit cost and accounts do not need to be lodged anywhere.

 

Guide to Tax Avoidance

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Our Package Prices are as follows (ask us to price your variation):

 

Basic Package for UK residents

 

Secretarial Maintenance
Government fees
Certificate of Registration

Partnership Agreement

Electronic delivery

Total is £348

To Expedite add £100

 

Annual renewal is only £50.

 

 

Basic Package for non UK residents

 

Registered Office Address
Secretarial Maintenance
Government fees
Certificate of Registration
Partnership Agreement

Application as tax exempt

Electronic delivery

Total is £408

To Expedite add £100

 

Annual renewal only £98.

Privacy Package

 

Registered Office Address
Secretarial Maintenance
Government fees
Certificate of Registration

Nominee Partners
Partnership Agreement

Electronic delivery Application as tax exempt

Total is £598

To Expedite add £100

 

Annual renewal only £308.

Including Offshore Banking introduction

 

Registered Office Address
Secretarial Maintenance
Government fees
Certificate of Registration

Partnership Agreement

Introduction to Euro Pacific Bank, IMG,

Application as tax exempt

Total is £498

To Expedite add £100

 

Annual renewal cost £118.

SCOTLAND LP - IMPORTANT INFORMATION

 

Scotland LP – Confidentiality and Security

  • Publicly Accessible Records: Yes, accessible but little information

  • Disclosure of Beneficial Ownership to Authorities: No - that's right, NO!

  • Meetings of Partners may be held: Anywhere

  • Stability: Steady jurisdiction with highly regarded reputation.

Scotland LP – Financial Advantages

  • Double Taxation Treaty Access: No Treaty Access

  • Account Filing Requirements: No accounting / reporting requirements

  • Annual Return Filing Requirements: No annual return/ reporting requirements

  • Audit Requirements: No audit required.

  • VAT registration now possible

Scotland Company – Requirements

  • Capital Minimum capital contribution: GBP 2

  • Registered Office Required: Yes, required and must be maintained in Scotland

  • Members (equivalent to Directors): Minimum number is two.

  • Your Company language: English

  • Name of your Company must be ended: “Limited Partnership”/”L.P.”

  • Documents required for the registration: A certified copy of your passport or ID and proof of your residential address dated less than 3 months. 

About Scotland

  • Capital: Edinburgh

  • Political System: Parliamentary Democracy

  • Government: Republic

  • Governing corporate legislation: Partnership Act 1890, Limited Partnerships Act 1907

  • Type of Law: Common

  • Currency: Great British Pound (GBP)

  • Exchange Control: None

  • Language of Legislation and Corporate Documents: English

  • Time zone: GMT+0 

Summary – With thanks to Brodies Law Practice

A Scottish limited partnership (SLP) is a unique vehicle. Although it has been around for over a century, the SLP has been used in recent times for modern business purposes such as private equity and property investment fund structures. This article looks at the advantages of the SLP which make it so attractive to fund managers, promoters and investors, both domestic and overseas.

What is a limited partnership?

Like a general partnership, a limited partnership must consist of two or more partners who carry on business with a view to profit. However, unlike a general partnership, in which all partners are jointly and severally liable for all the partnership debts, a limited partnership has two types of partner: general partners who are liable for the debts and obligations of the limited partnership and limited partners whose liability is limited to the extent of their capital contributions. A limited partnership must have at least one general partner and one limited partner. In order to benefit from limited liability, a limited partner cannot take part in or interfere in management of the limited partnership. Management functions are exclusively allocated to the general partner.


Advantages of the SLP


The particular advantages of using the SLP are a combination of the following:

  • Separate legal personality: this is a unique trait of the SLP which is not enjoyed by limited partnerships constituted elsewhere in the UK. It means that the SLP itself can own assets, enter into contracts, sue or be sued, own property, borrow money and grant certain types of security.

  • Tax transparency: this means that the SLP is taxed as though it did not have a separate legal personality. No tax is payable by the SLP itself. Instead, the UK tax authorities (and other foreign tax jurisdictions) look through the partnership structure and partners are taxed on their share of partnership income and gains arrived at in accordance with their profit-sharing ratios (which can be different from the ratios in which capital has been contributed).


The hybrid status of separate legal personality coupled with tax transparency offers the best of both worlds in a way that limited partnerships incorporated in other jurisdictions cannot.

  • Limited management participation: the legal requirement that limited partners may not participate in management makes SLPs ideal vehicles for multi-party investor structures where management and control rests with the general partner or manager appointed by the general partner.


Uses of an SLP

Funds structures

SLPs can be used flexibly in funds structures.

SLP as main fund vehicle

The SLP can be a main funds vehicle because:

  • it can hold assets in its own name;

  • there can be multiple but passive investors (the limited partners);

  • only one person manages the investments and business of the partnership (the general partner);

  • tax transparency means that each partner is taxed on the profits it receives, the amount of which will be determined by the limited partnership agreement.


SLP as a participant

Because it has separate legal personality, the SLP can also be used in funds or other structures which require 'persons' to be members. A common example of this is the use of the SLP as a carried interest partner. A 'carried interest partner' facilitates the filtering of a percentage of the profits of the main fund to the fund manager. An example of a structure is in this diagram.


The above structure comprises a main funds vehicle which is a limited partnership (and could be a SLP). The SLP is itself made one of the limited partners in the main funds vehicle. This is only possible because the SLP has separate legal personality: limited partnerships registered in other jurisdictions could not fulfil this function. The fund manager is one of the limited partners of the SLP. The profits from the main funds vehicle filter through to the SLP and from there to the fund manager (how and when this happens is determined by the limited partnership agreements). As the SLP is tax transparent, the fund manager is taxed directly on the profits it receives.


A similar structure can be used to facilitate incentive schemes for senior employees.


Tax planning and mitigation

Because it has separate legal personality and tax transparency, it is worth considering using the SLP in the context of tax structuring. SLPs are popular vehicles for use in a range of tax mitigation schemes which may be set up to reduce the liability of the partners to UK and/or foreign tax on income and chargeable gains or stamp duty land tax (known as SDLT). These structures can be rather complicated to set up but, where the requisite conditions are met, offer significant potential tax savings.


Setting up SLPs

Although not a legal requirement, there should always be a limited partnership agreement amongst the general and limited partners. This will cover, for example, the nature and amount of contributions by the limited partners, the allocation of profits, the administration of the SLP, and dissolution arrangements. The agreement should be governed by Scots law and be executed in Scotland.


SLPs have to be registered with the Registrar of Limited Partnerships at Companies House in Edinburgh. The formalities of registration can be effected within a short period. Amongst other things, the SLP must have principal place of business in Scotland in order to become registered. However, it is possible to migrate this to another jurisdiction following registration and for the SLP's activities to be managed offshore.

Taxation of partners in an SLP


UK tax resident partners are subject to UK tax on their share of worldwide partnership profits. Those partners who are not UK resident, however, will only pay UK tax if the partnership is carrying on a trade in the UK, and only on their share of profits arising in the UK. Whether or not partnership activities amount to a trade can be a difficult question, and care must be taken to ensure that the SLP will not inadvertently act in such a way as to be deemed to be carrying on a trade in the UK. Provided the partnership is not trading in the UK, however, no UK tax will be payable by non-UK resident partners.

 

Next Package:  Our price of US$770 includes:
 
      
• Registered Address and Agent
       • Company Secretarial Maintenance
       • Government fees
       • Certificate of Registration
       • Partnership Agreement
       • First minutes
       • Nominee general and limited corporate partner 

 

Key Features & Benefits
       • Most flexible type of entity in the UK
       • May do business anywhere worldwide
       • The minimum number of partners is 2
       • Partners may be natural persons or corporate entities
       • Capital contribution at partners discretion
       • Liability limited to the amount of contributions from the limited partners
       • A Scottish Limited Partnership is not subject to corporation tax
       • Filing accounts not required
       • Fiscally transparent entity

 
 

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